In order to solve the problem of poor communication conditions in the sowing machine operation in mountainous area, aiming at the shortcomings of inefficient algorithm in the selection of relaying nodes for multi-hop wireless sensor network data collection protocol, a multi-hop Multi-channel communication network and efficient relay node algorithm, effectively improve the work of the seeder monitoring system efficiency and accuracy. In order to realize multi-hop multi-channel communication, a 4 × 4 receiving and transmitting antenna is taken as an example. Based on the self-organizing network model, a multi-channel communication model is established. In order to implement efficient relay nodes and contrast flooding algorithm, Relay node layout algorithm, thereby enhancing the node's transmission efficiency. Finally, the no-till planter was taken as the research object to test the quality monitoring system of seeder operation. The results showed that the seeds were sown in the center of ditch directly by the way of feedback regulation. The sowing effect was better than that of the traditional seeder Significant improvement. At the same time, the parameters of seeding plant and the leakage coefficient were tested. The results showed that the various performances of seeding machine conformed to the national precision seeding machine design standards.