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垂直螺旋式定量施肥机的设计与试验

Design and Experiment of Vertical Spiral Fertilizer Applicator

摘要:

针对目前机械式施肥机排肥量控制精度和排肥均匀性较差的问题,设计了一种垂直螺旋式定量施肥机。该施肥机由垂直螺旋排肥装置、行走检测装置和控制系统组成,控制系统包括硬件电路和软件程序,行走检测装置检测施肥机行走信号,控制系统根据行走轮行走速度,并结合当前设置施肥量控制排肥电机转速,从而达到定量施肥的目的;安装于垂直螺旋和排肥管之间的排肥口挡板避免了不施肥时漏肥的情况。试验表明:垂直螺旋式定量施肥机施肥量与行走速度无关,仅取决于设置施肥量,施肥量控制误差在4%以内,施肥量控制精度高;变速行走时,排肥量均匀性变异系数不超过3%,排肥均匀性好。该施肥机为定量施肥机的设计提供了参考,提高了农业机械的机电一体化程度。

Abstract:

In view of the problem that the control precision and the even fertilizer uniformity of the mechanical fertilizer applicator are poor at present, a vertical spiral quantitative fertilizer applicator is designed. The fertilizing machine is composed of a vertical spiral fertilizer device, a walking detection device and a control system. The control system comprises a hardware circuit and a software program. The walking detection device detects a walking signal of the fertilizer spreader. The control system, according to the running speed of the walking wheel, Control the speed of the fertilizer motor, so as to achieve the purpose of quantitative fertilization; installed in the vertical spiral and fertilizer between the drain port baffle to avoid leakage of fertilizers when not fertilizers. The results showed that the amount of fertilizer applied to the vertical screw-type fertilizer applicator was independent of the walking speed, which was only dependent on the amount of fertilizer applied. The control error of fertilizer amount was within 4% and the control precision of fertilizer amount was high. The coefficient of variation More than 3%, good fertilizer uniformity. The fertilizer machine for the quantitative fertilizer designed to provide a reference to improve the mechanical and electrical machinery integration level.

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